Category Archives: Resources

Tromanhauser, “Dining at the Modernist Table: Teaching Food in Women’s Interwar Writing”

Commentary from contributor Vicki Tromanhauser:

Two competing aesthetic modes come out of the food writing of the interwar period and represent contrasting modernist approaches to cuisine. This sampling of recipes exemplifies these opposed perceptions of food, as mere nutritive medium or as rarified art form, an occasion for extravagance and sensuous enjoyment.


The austerity of the food writing under wartime rationing, determined by scarce ingredients and limited resources, is marked by economical precision. Food rationing in England began in the winter of 1917–18 and, because of continuing shortages in the immediate postwar period, lasted until 1921. The recipes for “Army Broth” and “Hard Times Pie” in Marion Harris Neil’s The Thrift Cook Book (1919), for example, spurn waste and offer dishes reduced to their nutritional essentials. The stripped-down style of such austerity food writing evokes sparsity and frugality, and values economy and nourishment over taste and pleasure.

A page from The Thrift Cook Book by Marion Harris Neil showing the recipe for Army Broth.

“Army Broth.” Marion Harris Neil, The Thrift Cook Book. Philadelphia: David McKay, 1919. 24-5.


A page from The Thrift Cook Book by Marion Harris Neil showing the recipe for Hard Times Pie.

“Hard Times Pie.” Marion Harris Neil, The Thrift Cook Book. Philadelphia: David McKay, 1919. 324-5.


The fashionable food writing of the post-rationing era, by contrast, celebrates the diet of decadence. The sublime descriptions featured in Ambrose Heath’s recipe for beef en daube in Good Food (1932) tip their hat to Virginia Woolf’s “rhapsody” on this “noble dish” in To the Lighthouse, while “Menu 14” of Ruth Lowinsky’s Lovely Food: A Cookery Notebook (1931) delivers a literary and intellectual pleasure akin to the gustatory enjoyment it promises. As intent upon elaborating its “dream party” of guests and the decorative arrangement of its fare as it is upon the method of the food’s preparation, the recipes embrace ambiguity and sacrifice clarity for style. Lowinsky’s whimsical combinations of ingredients and dishes might be better read than tasted.


A page from Lovely Food by Ruth Lowinsky showing "Menu 14."

“Menu 14.” Ruth Lowinsky, Lovely Food: A Cookery Notebook. London: Nonesuch Press, 1931. 54-5.


A page from Lovely Food by Ruth Lowinsky showing "Menu 14."

“Menu 14.” Ruth Lowinsky, Lovely Food: A Cookery Notebook. London: Nonesuch Press, 1931. 56-7.


A page from Good Food by Ambrose Heath showing "Beef en daube."

“Beef en daube.” Ambrose Heath, Good Food. London: Faber and Faber, 1932. 184-5.


A page from Good Food by Ambrose Heath showing "Beef en daube."

“Beef en daube.” Ambrose Heath, Good Food. London: Faber and Faber, 1932. 186-7.



Golden, “Digital Landscapes: Mapping Global Modernist Women Writers”

Course Websites

Golden’s course, “Global Digital Modernisms,” at the New York Institute of Technology

Link here

Golden’s course, “Global Literature and Digital Media,” at the New York Institute of Technology

Link here

Further Reading/Project Examples

Golden on mapping Jacob’s Room for TECHStyle, a forum for sharing multimodal pedagogy at Georgia Tech, November 12, 2013

Link here

Soweto Historical GIS Project at Digital Humanities Initiative at Hamilton College

Link here

Brian Croxall, mapping Mrs. Dalloway, Introduction to Digital Humanities at Emory University

Link here

Additional previous posts and resources by Golden here on “Teaching Modernist Women’s Writing in English”:

“Navigating Modernism’s Visual History”

“Digital Woolf”

Related Reading: Gordon and Southworth, Foster

Cheney, “How to Write and Gertrude Stein and How to Read”

Gertrude Stein:  Resources
compiled by Matthew Cheney

By Gertrude Stein



About Gertrude Stein



Pedagogies and Practices

Kopley, “Teaching the Revisions of Woolf and Others”

Bibliography of Draft Material by Woolf


Draft versions of books by Woolf

(listed chronologically by initial publication of each book for which the following are draft versions)

Melymbrosia: An Early Version of The Voyage Out, edited by Louise DeSalvo, New York Public Library, 1982.

Virginia Woolf’s Jacob’s Room: The Holograph Draft, edited by Edward Bishop, Pace UP, 1998.

“The Hours”: The British Museum Manuscript of Mrs. Dalloway, edited by Helen Wussow, Pace UP, 1996.

To the Lighthouse: The Original Holograph Draft, edited by Susan Dick, U of Toronto P, 1982.

Orlando: The Holograph Draft, edited by Stuart N. Clarke, S. N. Clarke, 1993.

Women & Fiction: The Manuscript Version of A Room of One’s Own, edited by S. P. Rosenbaum, Blackwell, Shakespeare Head P, 1992.

The Waves: The Two Holograph Drafts, edited by J. W. Graham, U of Toronto P, 1976.

The Pargiters: The Novel-Essay Portion of The Years, edited by Mitchell A. Leaska, Hogarth Press, 1978.

Pointz Hall: The Earlier and Later Typescripts of Between the Acts, edited by Mitchell A. Leaska, New York UP, 1983.

Articles and book chapters including primary draft material by Woolf

Daugherty, Beth Rigel. “Virginia Woolf’s ‘How Should One Read a Book?” Woolf Studies Annual vol. 4, 1998, pp. 123–85.

DeSalvo, Louise A. “Virginia Woolf’s Revisions for the 1920 American and English Editions of The Voyage Out.” Bulletin of Research in the Humanities, vol. 82, 1979, pp. 338–66.

Gabler, Hans Walter. “A Tale of Two Texts: Or, How One Might Edit Virginia Woolf’s To the Lighthouse.” Woolf Studies Annual vol. 10, 2004, pp. 1–29.

Gewirtz, Isaac. “‘With Anger and Emphasis’: The Proof Copy of A Room of One’s Own.” Woolf Studies Annual, vol. 17, 2011, pp. 1–76.

Haule, James M.; Charles Mauron (trans.) “‘Le Temps passe’ and the Original Typescript: An Early Version of the ‘Time Passes’ Section of To the Lighthouse.” Twentieth Century Literature, vol. 29, no. 3, 1983, pp. 267–311.

Hankins, Leslie Kathleen. “Virginia Woolf’s ‘The Cinema’: Sneak Previews of the Holograph Pre-Texts through Post-Publication Revisions.” Woolf Studies Annual vol. 15, 2009, pp. 135–75.

Hildick, Wallace. “Virginia Woolf.” Word for Word: A Study of Authors’ Alterations with Exercises. Faber and Faber, 1965. 176–87.

Lavin, J. A. “The First Editions of Virginia Woolf’s To the Lighthouse.Proof: The Yearbook of American Bibliographical and Textual Studies 2, edited by Joseph Katz, U of South Carolina P, 1972, pp. 185–211.

McGinn, Emily, Amy Leggette, Matthew Hannah, and Paul Bellow. “Comparing Marks: A Versioning Edition of Virginia Woolf’s ‘The Mark on the Wall.’” Scholarly Editing: The Annual of the Association for Documentary Editing vol. 35, 2014. Web. 21 March 2017. <>.

Moore, Madeline. “Orlando: An Edition of the Manuscript.” Twentieth Century Literature, vol. 25, nos. 3/4 (Virginia Woolf Issue), 1974, pp. 303–55.

Radin, Grace. “‘Two enormous chunks’: Episodes Excluded During the Final Revisions of The Years.” Bulletin of the New York Public Library, vol. 80, 1977, pp. 221–51.

Scott, Alison M. “‘Tantalising Fragments’: The Proofs of Virginia Woolf’s Orlando. Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America, vol. 88, no. 3, 1994, pp. 279–351.

Shields, E. F. “The American Edition of Mrs. Dalloway.” Studies in Bibliography, vol. 27, 1974, pp. 157–75.

Squier, Susan. “A Track of Our Own: Typescript Drafts of The Years.” Virginia Woolf: A Feminist Slant, edited by Jane Marcus, U of Nebraska P, 1983, pp. 198–211.

Wright, Glenn P. “The Raverat Proofs of Mrs. Dalloway.” Studies in Bibliography, vol. 29, 1986, pp. 241–61.

Digital primary draft material by Woolf

Digital Orlando. Loyola University Chicago. Web. 21 March 2017. <>.

McGinn et al. [cited above]. “The Mark on the Wall” Edition. Web. 21 March 2017. <>.

“Notebook drafts of Virginia Woolf’s Mrs. Dalloway.” The British Library. <>. Accessed 1 April 2017.

“Woolf in the World: A Pen and a Press of Her Own.” Page proofs of To the Lighthouse. Mortimer Rare Book Room, Smith College. <>. Accessed 1 April 2017.

Woolf Online. Ed. Pamela L. Caughie, Nick Hayward, Mark Hussey, Peter Shillingsburg, and George K. Thiruvathukal. Web. 21 March 2017.  <>.


Related reading:   Gordon and Southworth, Mendelman, Kane, Sorensen

Cucullu, “Assigning Dorothy Richardson’s Difficult Modernist Firsts”

The Dorothy Richardson Website

Link here

From the home page:

The website has the most up-to-date bibliography of Richardson’s work, Richardson criticism and the material contained in the Richardson archives. Designed to be a resource for academics and research students, it contains: information about Richardson scholarship; introductory material about her life and work; news and events; and an electronic journal, published annually, devoted to Richardson studies. It also contains information about the projects for publishing Richardson.  (Accessed April 9, 2018)

The Yale Modernism Lab

Link here

From “About”:

The Modernism Lab, a virtual space dedicated to collaborative research into the roots of literary modernism, was compiled from 2005 to 2012. Through this project, we hoped, by a process of shared investigation, to describe the emergence of modernism out of a background of social, political, and existential ferment. The project covered the period 1914-1926, from the outbreak of the first world war to the full-blown emergence of English modernism. The Lab has supported undergraduate classes on Modern Poetry, the Modern British Novel, Modernist London, and Joyce’s Ulysses, and a graduate course in English and Comparative Literature, “Moderns, 1914-1926,” as well as a class on modern German literature at the University of Notre Dame. Students in the classes have contributed materials to the website and used it as the platform for their research. The main components of the original website were an innovative research tool, YNote, containing information on the activities of 24 leading modernist writers during this crucial period and a wiki consisting of brief interpretive essays on literary works and movements of the period.  (Accessed April 9, 2018)

The Victorian Web

Link here

From “What Is The Victorian Web?”:

The Victorian Web takes a fundamentally different approach to finding and using information than do search-based Internet projects. Internet archives and invaluable Internet tools, such as Google, treat bodies of information as a chaotic swamp that one searches — one can’t say “negotiates” — with a wonderful laser-like tool that penetrates the fog and darkness. If we find what we’re looking for, we leave immediately. We relate differently to hypertexts like the Victorian Web, which conceive of information existing within a complex ecology or set of connections, because they allow us to experience the richness of the texts and images we encounter. In the Victorian Web we encounter books, paintings, political events, and eminent and not-so-eminent Victorians in multiple contexts, which we can examine when and if we wish to do so. The Victorian Web also differs fundamentally from websites like Wikipedia and many reference works, such as Britannica, and the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography: Each of these justly renowned sites (which authors of material on this site use frequently) aims to present a single authoritative view of its subject. In contrast, the multivocal Victorian Web encourages multiple points of view and debate, in part because matters of contemporary interest rarely generate general agreement.  (Accessed April 9, 2018)

Ambrose, “The Woman Born with a Difference: Teaching the Lesbian Novel in a Modernist Context”

The Lesbian Novel:  Recommended Reading/Suggested Course Texts

Barnes, Djuna. Ladies Almanack: showing their Signs and their tides ; their Moons and their Changes ; the Seasons as it is with them ; their Eclipses and Equinoxes ; as well as a full Record of diurnal and nocturnal Distempers. Dalkey Archive P, 1992.

—–. Nightwood. New Directions, 2006.

—–. Ryder. St. Martin’s, 1979.

Barney, Natalie Clifford. Women Lovers, or The Third Woman. Translated by Chelsea Ray, U of Wisconsin P, 2016.

—–. The One Who is Legion; or A.D.’s After-Life. Orono: U of Maine Printing Office, 1987.

Berners, Gerald. The Girls of Radcliff Hall. Elysium P, 2000.

Collette. The Complete Claudine: Claudine at School; Claudine in Paris; Claudine Married; Claudine and Annie. Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 2001.

Delarus-Mardrus, Lucie. The Angel and the Perverts. Translated by Anna Livia, NYUP, 1995.

Frederics, Diana. Diana: A Strange Autobiography. NYU P, 1995.

Hall, Radclyffe. The Unlit Lamp, White P, 2015.

—–. The Well of Loneliness. Anchor, 1990.

H.D. HERmione. New Directions, 1981

Larsen, Nella. Passing. A. A. Knopf, 1929.

McCullers, Carson. The Member of the Wedding. Mariner, 2004.

Proust, Marcel. Sodom and Gomorrah. Penguin Classics, 2005.

Renault, Mary. The Friendly Young Ladies. Vintage, 2003.

Sackville-West, Vita. Challenge. Virago, 2012.

—–. Heritage. Bello, 2012. 

Stein, Gertrude. The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas. Vintage Books, 1990.

—–. Three Lives. Enhanced Media, 2017.

Stratchey, Dorothy. Olivia. Cleis P, 2006.

Vivien, Renée. A Woman Appeared to Me. Translated by Jeannette H. Foster. Naiad P, 1976.

—–. L’être double. ErosOnyx, 2014.

Wilhelm, Gale. Torchlight to Valhalla. Pomona P, 2012.

—–. We Too Are Drifting. Naiad P, 1985.

Woolf, Virginia. Between the Acts. Mariner, 1970.

—–. Mrs. Dalloway. Mariner, 1990.

—–. Orlando: A Biography. Mariner, 1973.

—–. To The Lighthouse. Harcourt Brace, 1989.

—–. The Voyage Out. CreateSpace, 2017. 

—–. The Waves. Harvest, 1978.

Reginio, “Questioning Modernist Poetry: Feminist Poetics in the Classroom”

Contemporary Experimental Poetry by Women:  Resources used in “Modernist Women Writers”

Arizona State University’s online archive of the journal HOW(ever) and its follow-up How2, journals dedicated to modernist and contemporary innovative poetry by women.

Link here

The online journal Jacket2‘s “reissue” of the journal Chain, edited by Jena Osman and Juliana Spahr, which, during its run in the 90’s and early 00’s, focused on innovative women’s writing. 

Link here

PennSound, run by the Center for Programs in Contemporary Writing at the University of Pennsylvania, is an unmatched resource for audio and video of innovative, experimental writers reading and discussing their work.

Here are authors studied in the course “Modernist Women Writers” and their pages on PennSound:

Rae Armantrout

Susan Howe

Myung Mi Kim

M. NourbeSe Philip

Harryette Mullen:

Video from an online course on Modern American Poetry organized by Al Filreis containing a discussion of Mullen’s volume Sleeping with the Dictionary, which is also part of my course “Modernist Women Writers.”

Mullen reading poems from Sleeping with the Dictionary:

“All She Wrote”

“Wipe that Smile Off Your Aphasia”

“Quality of Life”

“Coals to Newcastle, Panama Hats from Ecuador”

Dinsman, “Adapting Women’s Writing: Melodrama and the Second World War”

The course website described by Dinsman was created with WordPress and is housed on the CUNY Commons.  Link here

Related reading: Marshik


Novels and Essays

Phyllis Bottome, The Mortal Storm

Elizabeth Bowen, The Demon Lover

Elizabeth Bowen, The End of the Day

Daphne du Maurier, Rebecca

Henry Green, Caught

Henry Green, Loving

Grahame Greene, The End of the Affair

Graham Greene, The Ministry of Fear

Patrick Hamilton, Hangover Square

Patrick Hamilton, The Slaves of Solitude

Louis MacNeice, “Autumn Journal”

Jan Struther, Mrs. Miniver

Evelyn Waugh, Put Out More Flags

Virginia Woolf, Between the Acts

Virginia Woolf, Three Guineas

Virginia Woolf, “Thoughts on Peace…”

Films and Documentaries

Frank Borzage, The Mortal Storm

Harold French, Unpublished Story

Alfred Hitchcock, Foreign Correspondent

Alfred Hitchcock, Rebecca

Humphrey Jennings, Fires Were Started

Humphrey Jennings, London Can Take It

Fritz Lang, The Ministry of Fear

William Wyler, Mrs. Miniver

Other Media Objects

Vera Brittain, Wartime Chronicle (diary)

Winston Churchill (speeches)

Mollie Panter-Downes, London War Notes 1939-1945 (New Yorker articles)

Mass-Observation (report excerpts)

Ministry of Information (propaganda posters)

Edward R. Murrow (radio broadcasts)

J.B. Priestley, Britain Speaks (radio broadcasts)

Additional Suggestions


Vera Brittain, England’s Hour
T.S. Eliot, Four Quartets

Henry Green, Back
Graham Greene, The Confidential Agent
Storm Jameson, England to Let
Storm Jameson, London Calling: A Salute to America

Dorothy Sayers, Begin Here: A War-Time Essay
G.W. Stonier, Memoirs of a Ghost
G.W. Stonier, Shaving Through the Blitz
M.J. Tambimuttu, Out of this War
Rex Warner, The Aerodrome
Rebecca West, Black Lamb and Grey Falcon


Charlie Chaplin, The Great Dictator
Alfred Hitchcock, Lifeboat
Leslie Howard, ‘Pimpernel’ Smith
Humphrey Jennings, Listen to Britain!
Michael Powell and Emeric Pressburger, The Life and Death of Colonel Blimp
Michael Powell and Emeric Pressburger (with MOI), 49th Parallel
Michael Powell and Emeric Pressburger (with MOI), The Volunteer

Other Media Objects

E.M. Forster, The BBC Talks of E.M. Forster (radio broadcasts)
Ministry of Food recipes Link here
Louis MacNeice, Christopher Columbus (radio play)
George Orwell, The War Broadcasts (radio broadcasts)
Propaganda Posters: Imperial War Museum  Link here 


Hinnov, “Teaching the Harlem Renaissance: Hannah Höch, Marita O. Bonner, and Nella Larsen”

Teaching Literature of the Harlem Renaissance:  Primary Materials

Du Bois, W.E.B. The Souls of Black Folk. 1903. Johnson Reprint Corp, 1968.

Fisher, Rudolph. City of Refuge: The Collected Stories of  Rudolph Fisher. U of Missouri P, 2018. 

Hughes, Langston. The Collected Poems of Langston Hughes. Edited by Arnold Rampersad., Knopf, 1995

Hurston, Zora Neale. Folklore, Memoirs, & Other Writings. 1942. Library of America, 1995.

—. Their Eyes Were Watching God. 1937. HarperCollins, 2000.

Johnson, Helene. “A Southern Road.” Fire!!: Devoted to Younger Negro Artists. The Fire Press, 1926, p. 17.

Kramer, Victor A., editor. The Harlem Renaissance Re-examined. AMS Press, 1987.

Larsen, Nella. Passing. 1929. Edited by Carla Kaplan, Norton, 2007.

—. Quicksand and Passing. 1928, 1929. Edited by Deborah E. McDowell, Rutgers UP, 1986.

Locke, Alain. The New Negro. 1925. Touchstone, 1999

McKay, Claude. Harlem Shadows: The Poems of Claude McKay. Harcourt, Brace and Company, Google Books.

West, Dorothy.  The Living is Easy.  1948.  Feminist Press, 1982.

Hannah Höch:  Images and Catalogue

Maloney, Meghan.  “Hannah Höch and the Dada Montage.”  In the In-Between:  Journal of New and New Media Photography, April 29, 2013.  Accessed April 9, 2018.

Link here

Jansen, Charlotte.  “Hannah Höch’s Reimagining of Indigenous African Artefacts.”  AnOther, August 3, 2016.  Accessed April 9, 2018.

Link here

Höch, Hannah.  Abduction.  1925.  ArtStack.  Accessed April 14, 2018.

Link here

The Photomontages of Hannah Höch.  Organized by Maria Makela and Peter Boswell.  Essays by Maria Makela, Peter Boswell, Carolyn Lanchner, chronology by Kristin Makholm.  Published by the Walker Art Center.  Catalog from the exhibition held at the Walker Art Center, the Museum of Modern Art, and the Los Angeles County Museum of Art.  1996.  Accessed April 11, 2018.

Link here

Recommended Reading:

In 2018 the New York Times launched an interactive feature entitled “Overlooked”: a series of obituaries for notable women not deemed notable enough at the times of their deaths to receive actual obituaries in the newspaper.  These figures include Sylvia Plath, Diane Arbus, Ida B. Wells, and Qiu Jin.

Readers can submit a form suggesting additional “overlooked” figures, and the potential for use in the classroom seems vast.  In addition to working with students on texts by and about these figures, and on students’ own (possibly multimodal or interactive) compositions along the lines of “Overlooked,” instructors could ask questions like:  How does the genre of the obituary work as a form of life writing, and how does it function to celebrate, commemorate, narrativize, and/or erase?  How do text and image work together?  How has the work of recovery impacted the Times‘s decision to devote time and resources (precious commodities in our information-saturated media moment) to pursue this project, and what work remains to be done?  What selection criteria seem to be at work in their choices, how do they square with the selections we make vis à vis canon, etc., and are they open for critique/interrogation?  Is this a feminist project?  In many ways, this feature makes visible the fruits of—and the ongoing need for—the work of recovery, as well as the questions raised by that work.

Here is the “Overlooked” obituary for Nella Larsen (accessed April 11, 2018):

Link here

Marshik, “Teaching Modernism and the Middlebrow Using the Artist Novel”

The Middlebrow Network

Link here

From the Home page:

The Middlebrow Network is an AHRC-funded project that provides a focus for research on the loaded and disreputable term “middlebrow” and the areas of cultural production it purports to represent. The network is both transatlantic and interdisciplinary: we work to foster discussion and collaboration across geographical and disciplinary divides.  (Accessed April 9, 2018)